The course discusses the economic history of pre-modern Europe (c. 1000-1890). At the beginning of this period, Europe, after centuries of stagnation, gradually began to develop, first in the Italian city-states and the Mediterranean. After 1500, when the Europeans arrived in the Americas the centre of gravity moved to the Atlantic coastline and North Sea region. The course discusses the various ways in which access to the Atlantic and contacts with Asia, Africa and the Americas allowed for growth in the Low Countries and England, and how pre-modern growth is linked to the latter country’s Industrial Revolution. Attention will also be given to the forces causing stagnation and decline in the South of Europe, as well as the North and East. The course will conclude with the technological breakthroughs leading to the First Industrial Revolution in England and the emergence of the industrial economy. Altogether, the course highlights crucial preconditions for industrialization and modern economic growth that were created during the period 1000-1890 and shaped the future course of the European economies, after 1890.