This course presents and discusses some of the fundamental debates in African economic history. Emphasis is placed on research in recent years. The course consists of four themes: (i) a broader overview of the research field, (ii) long-term economic and agrarian change, (iii) state formation and capacity, (iv) inequality, welfare and poverty. Within each theme we discuss and compare central perspectives and debates that students are expected to be able to contrast and critically examine. The first part of the course consists of literature seminars where selected mandatory reading is discussed. During the second half of the course, each student is free to identify an individual in-depth study area that fits into the overall framework of the course.