Human capital is, in short, the stock of skills that a country’s population or labor force possesses. It is an important determinant to economic growth and a strategic factor with respect to productivity. It also affects individuals’ lives in many ways through the promotion of personal well-being and economic equality. This course explores a range of topics relating to human capital formation by using historical, comparative, and current policy perspectives. Theory, methodological approaches, and empirical evidence on a range of topics are reviewed. Topics include the role of education in economic growth and distribution, the role of education and training for wage growth and career, and group differences in labor market outcomes, health and well-being. Lectures, seminars, and exams deal with human capital formation, the role of human capital during the first, second, and third industrial revolutions, and with the relation between human capital and income inequality across time and space.